Reishi mushroom extracts contains such active ingredients as:
Chaga mushroom extracts contains such active ingredients as:
– betulinic acid
Remember to use ONLY WATER EXTRACTS or ALCOHOL EXTRACTS. Avoid “powdered mushrooms” – you can’t digest chitin and – even if – they have very, very little active ingredients.
Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) vs. HPV
This preliminary randomized study investigated the efficacy of medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor (TV), Ganoderma lucidum (GL), and Laetiporus sulphureus (LS), on the clearance of oral human papillomavirus (HPV, serotypes 16 and 18). Among 472 patients who underwent oral swabs for gingivitis, 61 patients were positive for HPV16 or HPV18. Twenty patients were included in group 1 (LS) and 41 patients were included in group 2 (TV+GL) for 2 months. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV was performed at inclusion and after 2 months. In group 1, the clearance was equal to 5% after 2 months of treatment. In group 2, the clearance was equal to 88% (P<0.001). The detection of HPV16 or HPV18 could become relevant in routine since positivity is frequent and because a harmless and costless treatment may exist. The use of TV+GL for the clearance of oral HPV deserves further investigation.
Reishi vs. bacteria
This article presents a comparative gas chromatography (GC)−mass spectrometry (MS)−based metabolomic analysis of mycelia and fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three aqueous extracts−mycelia, fruiting bodies, and a mixture of them−and their sequential fractions (methanolic and ethyl acetate), prepared using an accelerated solvent extractor, were characterized by GC-MS to determine volatile organic compounds and by high-performance thin-layer chromatography to quantify ascorbic acid, a potent antioxidant. In addition, these extracts and fractions were assessed against Candida albicans and C. glabrata biofilms via the XTT reduction assay, and their antioxidant potential was evaluated. Application of chemometrics (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) to GC data revealed variability in volatile organic compound profiles among G. lucidum extracts and fractions. The mycelial aqueous extract demonstrated higher anti-Candida activity and ascorbic acid content among all the extracts and fractions. Thus, this study illustrates the preventive effect of G. lucidum against C. albicans and C. glabrata biofilms along with its nutritional value.
Reishi vs. cancer
In this study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, obtained from three localities (China; and Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico) on cervical cells transformed by human papillomavirus (HeLa and SiHa) and C-33A cancer cells. The cells were plated in DMEM medium supplemented, and were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of G. lucidum for 24 h. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT colorimetric assay and viability by trypan blue assay. Inhibitory dose was determined (IC50) of the three different extracts of G. lucidum in the culture cell lines mentioned above. The apoptosis process was confirmed by nuclear DNA fragmentation and the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three localities produced inhibition in the proliferation of VPH transformed cells; they also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A cancer cells. Therefore, it was found that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three different locations produced inhibitory effect on cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
Reishi vs. tumors
Ganoderma lucidum has been established to be an antitumor natural product. Hot-water extracts of the mycelium of G. lucidum (GLP) exhibited antitumor effect against fibrosarcoma in male and female C3H mice and inhibited the metastasis of the tumor to the lung. Moreover, we have fractionated GLP into polysaccharide fraction [GLP(AI)] and nonpolysaccharide fraction. We found that GLP(AI) is the major component to show the in vivo antitumor effect on fibrosarcoma growth in C3H mice. The effect of PS-G purified from GLP(AI) by Sephadex and ion-exchange column chromatography on the induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells was examined. We found that it could stimulate blood mononuclear cells to secrete cytokines, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-1b, and IL-6, etc., which were both antiproliferative and differentiation-inductive to the leukemic U937 and HL-60 cells. TNF-a and IFN-g, especially, induced apoptosis and differentiation in the treated leukemic cells. Furthermore, antitumor activity of G. lucidum on intraperitioneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice was investigated. The results showed that GLP significantly increased the lifespan of tumor-implanted mice, when administered intraperioneally alone or in combination with cytotoxic antitumor drugs (adriamycin, fluorouracil, thioguanine, methotrexate, or cisplatin) or a synthetic immunomodulator (imexon). The GLP was not cytotoxic to cultured cells, and the antitumor activity was abolished by pretreatment of mice with cyclosporine. These observations suggest that GLP exerts its antitumor effect mainly through immunopotentiation of the tumor-bearing animals.
Betulinic acid from Chaga mushrooms
Betulinic Acid is a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene derivative of betulin (isolated from the bark of Betula alba, the common white birch) with antiinflammatory, anti-HIV and antineoplastic activities. Betulinic acid induces apoptosis through induction of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, resulting in the release of mitochondrial apogenic factors, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Although originally thought to exhibit specific cytotoxicity against melanoma cells, this agent has been found to be cytotoxic against non-melanoma tumor cell types including neuroectodermal and brain tumor cells.
Chaga vs. cancer
The natural compound betulinic acid shows potent anticancer activity through activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in cancer cells. Betulinic acid may also be used in combination protocols to enhance its antitumor activity, for example with chemo- or radiotherapy or with the death receptor ligand TRAIL. Because of its relative selective cytotoxicity against malignant compared to normal cells, betulinic acid is a promising new experimental anticancer agents for the treatment of human cancers.